太田述正コラム#6376(2013.8.8)
<皆さんとディスカッション(続x1984)>

<太田>(ツイッターより)

 米国で、イルカが、人間以外で、(象を超える、20年以上の)最長の記憶力を持っていることが分かったんだって。
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-23589041
 イルカが鯨類であることから、ますます欧米で日本の調査捕鯨に反対する声が高まりそうだ、というイヤーな予感がするなあ。

<gccr9D9.>(「たった一人の反乱(避難所)」より)

 満杯だから受刑者釈放? 米加州刑務所、打つ手なし
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/130807/amr13080717150009-n1.htm

 州予算の11%がムショ関連の費用という異常さ。
 カリフォルニアの話とはいえ、国内がこんな状況なのに、軍隊は世界展開しすぎ。
 一例として挙げるが、冷戦が終わったのだから、地中海はフランスやイタリア海軍だけで十分じゃなかろうか。

 第6艦隊 (アメリカ軍)
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%AC%AC6%E8%89%A6%E9%9A%8A_(%E3%82%A2%E3%83%A1%E3%83%AA%E3%82%AB%E8%BB%8D)

<太田>

 そーだそーだ。


 それでは、その他の記事の紹介です。

 中共で当局発行の発票(Fapiao)・・付加価値税領収書フォーム・・偽造業が大繁盛してるらしい。偽造発票は脱税目的に活用されている。↓

 <偽造業者や利用者(団体、個人)をいくら摘発してもキリがない状態。↓>
 ・・・In 2009, authorities said they detained 5,134 people and closed 1,045 fake invoice production sites. A year later, they said they “smashed” 1,593 criminal gangs and raided 74,833 enterprises that had filed false invoices with the government.・・・
 <中央官庁まで「活用」!↓>
 ・・・even government officials take part in black market activity. In 2010, for instance, the National Audit Office said it caught central government departments embezzling US$21 million with fake invoices.・・・
 <当局は、1980年代末から1990年代初にかけて、発票利用を義務付けた。↓>
 China’s fapiao system took root in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the government began requiring companies to use official receipts issued by the tax authorities for every business transaction. The receipts usually come with a number and government seal.
 <偽造業者の技術水準は極めて高い。↓>
 The tax receipt system was quickly exploited. Gangs began producing high-quality imitations of the official invoices using specially designed printers with markings that bore a striking likeness to red government seals.・・・
http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2013/08/08/2003569174
(元記事はNYタイムス)

 中共で、城管(Chengguan=城市管理行政執法局)・・200年から2001年にかけて全国で設置され、行商人の摘発等、地方公共団体の手足として活動する準警察・・
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_Urban_Administrative_and_Law_Enforcement_Bureau
が住民の怨嗟の的になってるらしい。↓

 ・・・Chengguan are auxiliary para-police organized and hired by city governments to handle various urban problems under laws so vague and general that there is little restraint on their powers. Despite years of bitter public complaints over the thug-like, and often violent, behavior of many chengguan, little has been done to rein them in. ・・・
 <しばしば暴力を用いるし、勾留権限がないのに住民を勾留。↓>
 Although the main emphasis in Chinese media on chengguan misconduct has involved the use of excessive force against street vendors, the chengguang have also been found detaining people, even though that detention is limited by law to public security organs.
 <城管に関しては、中央当局に介入権限なし。↓>
 The chengguan are completely under the control of local governments, making them an exception to the otherwise nationwide practice of dual leadership by local and central governments. ・・・
 <先般、北京空港で手製爆弾を爆発させて重傷を負った車椅子の男性は、白タク営業をしていて城管に殴られ身体障害者となり、補償を求めて裁判闘争をしてきたが埒が明かなかったという経緯がある。↓>
 Last month, a 34-year-old man who had been severely beaten by para-police in 2005 for operating an illegal taxi business in Guangdong detonated a bomb in Beijing’s Capital International Airport and suffered severe injury. He had lost the case he had brought to court and after eight years of petitioning surrendered to despair.・・・
http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2013/08/08/the-ticking-bomb-of-chinas-urban-para-police/?mod=WSJBlog&mod=chinablog

モノを記憶しようとする時に軽い運動をするといいんだって。(前や後に軽い運動をしても効果はないんだと。)↓

 ・・・Exercising during learning was, in her study, significantly more effective than exercising beforehand or not exercising at all.
 But that beneficial impact probably depended on the mildness of the workout, she said. Light-intensity exercise will elicit low but noticeable levels of physiological arousal, she said, which, in turn, presumably help to prime the brain for the intake of new information and the encoding of that information into memories.
 <激しい運動だと、脳がそちらに気を取られてしまう。↓>
 If the exercise is more vigorous, however, it may overstimulate the body and brain, she said, monopolizing more of the brain’s attentional resources and leaving fewer for the creation of robust memories.
 <軽い運動でも、記憶したかどうかのテストは1〜2日後にやらないとダメ。すぐテストをしても脳が対応できない。↓>
 This theory also helps to explain why・・・memory recall was best a day or two after exercise, by which time・・・physiological arousal would have dissipated. ・・・
http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/07/how-exercise-can-help-us-learn/?hpw&_r=0

 「双極性障害の治療に、薬剤服用やカウンセリングとともに、座禅/瞑想も有効である<かもしれない>」と前に(コラム#6328(未公開)で)記したところだが、鬱病には逆効果みたいね。双極性障害にはよさそうに私には思えるが・・。↓

 <実験で行った瞑想は、音楽を聞かせるか現在の瞬間に集中させる、というもの。↓>
 ・・・ The meditation involved listening to music and focusing just on the present moment. ・・・
 <喫煙者は、瞑想の結果、喫煙量が減った。↓>
 The study suggests that something is going on in the training that caused this implicit lessening of craving that results in people smoking less without even noticing it,・・・
 <依存症の人が渇望がどうして起きるのかを理解できるようになった結果、その渇望に抵抗する能力が増えたということ。↓>
 ・・・being aware of how cravings come and go can enhance your ability to resist them.
 <今までの方法では、渇望を抑圧させようとしたが、瞑想は渇望の実態をありのまま受け入れさせる。↓>
 That may be why meditation-based methods could be especially helpful in treating addictions, since other forms of treatment tend to focus on trying to control— rather than accept— the reality of cravings.・・・
 <要するに、渇望を抑圧しようとすると欲望がむしろ高まってしまう・・感情や記憶を抑圧しようとしても同じことが起きる・・、ということ。↓>
 Traditional antismoking and addiction care also becomes defeating since it asks addicts to suppress their cravings, which generally only heightens their feelings of desire. “What that does is make that thought increase and the same is true for emotions,” Bowen says, “Trying to suppress any experience is rarely effective.”
 <ただし、鬱病や精神的外傷に罹っている人の場合は、瞑想は、不安感を増大させたり、過去の邪念や感情やイメージに苦しめられたりする。↓>
 The same effects may not be as helpful for other mental illnesses that often lead to addictions. People with depression or past experiences of trauma, for example, may find themselves feeling increasingly anxious during meditation, no matter how much they try to focus on the moment. Or they may be plagued by intrusive thoughts, feelings and images of the past during their mindfulness exercises.・・・
http://healthland.time.com/2013/08/07/does-meditation-help-or-hinder-mental-illnesses/
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太田述正コラム#6377(2013.8.8)
<日支戦争をどう見るか(その18)>

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